نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
استاد گروه مطالعات عالی هنر دانشکده هنر دانشگاه سوره، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
At the beginning of the tenth century, the first Safavid ruler, Ismail I, captured Shiraz. We know Little about the history of Shiraz in the first century of Safavid rule. The transfer of the city from the Aq Quyunlu to the Safavid dynasty appears to have been relatively calm. The sources report that the Sunni Sufi orders suffered from the Safavid takeover. Shiraz, before the takeover, had been a city of learning (Dar al-Ilm) and a center of Sufism. The Qizilbash, who had a crucial role in the conquest of Shiraz, was rewarded with critical posts and continued to maintain a monopoly over influential military positions for almost a century, the region of Fars was assigned to the Turkman tribe called the Zolghadr immediately after the Safavid conquest. Shiraz was a prominent manuscript production center from at least the Al- Inju period, being a home for the most noteworthy manuscripts in the history of Iran. Artists of Shiraz continued practicing the established art of local traditions of the art of a book in the Safavid period. The early Safavid rule’s style was rooted in the Aq Qoyunlu style. In the succeeding years, this style was eliminated and the Qizilbash style was established. Two artists in this realm seriously worked. The illuminator Ruzbihan and the calligrapher Mun’im al-Din al-Auhadi. It is known that these two artists collaborated in the production of the manuscripts. Ruzbihan muzahhib (illuminator) was one of the most noteworthy Shiraz artists of the first half of the tenth century. A new style following the Tabriz style more closely, developed in Shiraz attesting to increasing connections between Shiraz and Safavid capital. It differs substantially from the style favored at Shiraz during the first two decades of the century. Shiraz artists abandoned the old style and adopted the new. The old style completely disappeared within a decade and was replaced by the new one. Significant changes are evident in the proportions of figures and their garments, hats, the use of patterns, landscape features, and architectural elements. We named this style Qizilbash style of Shiraz painting school. A group of associated Shiraz artists and artisans appears to have taken the lead in the new style of painting. The manuscripts signed by them contain the most innovative features in the new style. The characteristics that gave distinctive shape to the new style all appear in paintings signed by an artist named Qasim. The paintings that carry Qasim’s signature established the fundamental factors for the new style. Contemporary sources refer to a Shiraz artist named Qasim. Sam Miza mentions Malik Qasim the painter of Shiraz. Doost Muhammad writes he was an able calligrapher and painter. Mustafa Ali Afandi also mentions a painter Qasim and refers to him as Qasim Iraqi (Tabrizi). Qasim’s new and distinct figures reflect traits used in Tabriz’s paintings. Murshid al–katib, known as Attar, was another famous Shiraz artist. He was a calligrapher and painter. The illustrations of the manuscripts he copied show many similarities to Qasim,s work. The manuscripts of the Shiraz school of the Safavid period witnessed an increase in the Tabriz features used by Shiraz artists. This article digs into the impact of these two styles of the Safavid period.