عنوان مقاله [English]
This article follows the discourse systems represented in the iconography of the Qajar period Pen- Boxes, This article follows the discourse systems represented in the iconography of Qajar period pens, which follow the function of awarding a position. Therefore, relying on Fairclough's three-dimensional approach to critical discourse analysis, he has recognized the concepts of discourse and power as an arena for reconfiguring the function of the pen- Box, not as an artistic object but as a tool for assigning a position. And it tries to answer the question: What are the discourse systems in the iconography of Pen- Boxes. This research is based on assumptions. According to Fairclough, discourse also includes visual text. Accordingly, discourse as social action is manifested in three levels: text analysis, discourse, and critical discourse. The findings of the research show that the artist consciously created a discourse to legitimize the Qajar government by combining the discourses of tradition and modernity, breaking the rules of time, and combining metaphorical elements in terms of the use of positions and common themes. Defining metaphors by pencil illustrators, by displaying history and events based on the discourse of their class, somehow create their desired meaning and then create different and newer metaphors according to the function of ideology, culture and history. . In this way, they legitimize their discourse and de-legitimize the rival discourse, and this is the process of convincing the audience. According to the research findings, painters and iconographers confiscate metaphors in their favor and even depict icons in order to replace the metaphorical function of the pen to give a position instead of a pen maintenance tool. As the article showed, pens were a dual-purpose tool for maintaining writing tools and giving positions in the Qajar period. The undercoat painting of the pens is like text and consists of multiple layers. In answer to the question: What are the discourse systems in the iconography of pens? It should be said that the systems of these motifs are in line with the dominant discourses of the Qajar period, the discourse of archeology and nationalism, the religious in the Qajar period. The metaphorical encounter with the "other" is clearly seen in many works of the Qajar period, including tiles and pens. Putting together several pictorial texts, including Heaven and Hell and images of war, evokes the Qajar kings' concern about political relations with other countries, as well as the sense of fear and threat posed by Russia's recent invasion of Iranian territory.In addition to being a tool for writing, pens had a metaphorical function for giving verdicts to individuals in the Qajar period. Iconography of pens as a medium by using metaphorical images and related mental concepts, create the audience's mental belief. In order for the discourse of power to gain more legitimacy, the discourse of power of the Qajar kings uses the metaphors of the rival discourse from the iconography of the battlefields with the enemies and rivals of Iran in the Qajar period.